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Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders

Comprehensive Diagnostic Evaluation
The second stage of diagnosis must be comprehensive in order to accurately rule in or rule out an ASD or other developmental problem. This evaluation may be done by a multidisciplinary team that includes a psychologist, a neurologist, a psychiatrist, a speech therapist, or other professionals who diagnose children with ASD.
 
Because ASDs are complex disorders and may involve other neurological or genetic problems, a comprehensive evaluation should entail neurologic and genetic assessment, along with in-depth cognitive and language testing. In addition, measures developed specifically for diagnosing autism are often used. These include the Autism Diagnosis Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS-G). The ADI-R is a structured interview that contains over 100 items and is conducted with a caregiver. It consists of four main factors -- the child's communication, social interaction, repetitive behaviors, and age-of-onset symptoms. The ADOS-G is an observational measure used to "press" for socio-communicative behaviors that are often delayed, abnormal, or absent in children with ASD.
 
Still another instrument often used by professionals is the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). It aids in evaluating the child's body movements, adaptation to change, listening response, verbal communication, and relationship to people. It is suitable for use with children over 2 years of age. The examiner observes the child and also obtains relevant information from the parents. The child's behavior is rated on a scale based on deviation from the typical behavior of children of the same age.
 
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